Garden soils can be tough to manage sometimes, especially when left to their own devices for long periods. When neglected, soil can become super hard – so hard that the soil cracks. There are a few reasons why this happens, but it’s good to remember that it’s usually fixable.
When your garden soil is as hard as a rock, you can manage it by adding compost, digging up the hard topsoils, and using a combination of wool pellets and fertilizers. When your garden soil becomes rock-hard, it’s usually because of foot traffic, heavy rains, or overall neglect.
In the rest of this article, I’ll go through a step-by-step process to soften hard soil. If your soil is too difficult to work with, I’ll give you a few tips on using raised beds as an alternative. Finally, I’ll discuss why your garden soil is so hard and how heavy rains can impact the soil’s overall structure.
How To Soften Rock-Hard Soil
If your garden soil is practically impenetrable, don’t panic just yet. There are a few ways to manage the soil, soften it, and improve it, making it a more desirable environment for plant growth. Below are a few tips on how to soften rock-hard soil:
- Start by adding a little bit of water to the hard, cracked soil. Do this with a low-pressure hose rather than a high-pressure one since you don’t want to flood the ground completely. A light sprinkling will do the trick in this first stage.
- Leave the soil to soak in the water for 3-4 hours. This will allow the water to drain through to the soil directly beneath the surface, giving you a much better chance of breaking up the tough subsoil.
- Using a spade, break up the topsoil completely. This might take a bit of elbow grease – if you feel it could use a bit more water, repeat steps one and two for better results.
- Once you’ve broken up the surface of the soil, till it until it has broken into clumps. Once you’ve done this, use the low-pressure hose to water the next layer of soil, repeating steps one and two once more.
- Go back after a few hours to repeat step four with the subsoil. You should be left with a more manageable mass of soil at this point.
If the above steps don’t work, your soil is likely in very poor condition. However, you can still do a couple of things at this point. Let’s discuss them below.
Use Wool Pellets
One option is to use wool pellets. Watering the ground with a low-pressure hose and sprinkling over some wool pellets will help the topsoil leach in and retain the moisture, slowly opening the pores on the surface of the soil to help nutrients drain down to the subsoil.
This might take a while, so to speed up the process, you can add a layer of compost or peat moss to the top of the soil. Give it a mix every few days until the ground is a bit more workable, and then go from there to break up the soil using the five steps I discussed above.
Additionally, using a good fertilizer will help to improve the soil. Fertilizer and compost make an excellent duo, so use both for good measure.
If the hard soil in your garden is just a small patch, the above tips should help you break it down to usable soil. However, if it’s a huge space, you might want to use machinery – a process that may require expert help.
Use Crops To Soften Hard Soil
Another long-term option to soften hard soil is to plant crops, such as hardy vegetables or cover crops.
Cover crops – such as grass – have forceful roots that will penetrate the soil over time. If you’re not in a rush to soften up the soil, this is an all-natural way to break up the ground without you having to use any elbow grease in the process. Over time, cover crops will deposit organic materials in the topsoil, slowly creating an excellent environment for the growth of other plants.
If none of this works and you’re still having trouble with your compacted soil, the final alternative is to use raised garden beds. We’ll go into this in more detail below.
Tips for Using Raised Beds
Using raised beds is an excellent way to continue growing plants in your garden without having to manage tough soils. You have total control over the growing process, and it can even bring more aesthetic appeal to your space. What’s more, there are a number of affordable ways to fill your raised bed.
Here are a few tips for using raised garden beds:
- Try to place your raised beds in a place that gets a lot of direct sunlight. If you’re growing fruits, this is especially important.
- Level out the garden before installing the raised beds. This will help keep the area balanced and stable, and it will also help make the area look much nicer.
- Placing your plants in neat little rows will help you manage the beds much more efficiently. It creates a more manageable weeding and watering system and will make the area look very organized.
- Newspaper is an excellent addition to the soil of raised beds since it prevents the spread of weeds over time. It takes quite a while to decay, and during that time, it gives a little boost of organic materials to your beds.
- Make sure you’re using enough compost. Compost is another all-natural soil additive that is inexpensive to make at home and does wonders for any plant you’re growing. Just add a little bit into the topsoil every so often.
I’ve also written an article specifically about loosening compact soil in raised beds. You’ll learn a few ways to encourage aeration and drainage in raised beds: How To Loosen Compacted Soil in Raised Beds
Why Your Garden Soil Is Hard as a Rock
When your garden soil is rock-hard to the touch, and potentially a bit cracked, it’s most likely due to neglect. This area of your garden might suffer from a lot of foot traffic – or maybe it’s in the corner of the garden that you’ve never used.
Very hard, dry soils tell a story; the nature of the soil gives a clue as to why it’s so hard. For example, if you’ve got compacted soil with lots of small pebbles, it likely used to be part of a river bed.
In the same vein, if your soil is significantly cracked, it might have suffered from some kind of chemical damage.
If the hard soil is in an area of your garden used often for parking cars or heavy garden machinery, this could also be the cause. Overly-compacted soil might also have been walked over too many times, removing the essential topsoil that plants need to thrive.
Finally, the soil will harden over time if there is consistent, heavy rainfall. While rain is often considered the key to thriving plant life, too much rain can be detrimental to the soil – especially if it’s in an area of your garden that you don’t tend to use much. Neglecting soil exposed to torrential rain will make it become firmly packed over time. We’ll take a look at the effects of heavy rain later in this article.
Managing compacted soils can be a tough job if they’ve been hard and cracked for a long time. However, most of the time, they can be restored.
What Happens to the Soil When There’s Too Much Rain?
Although rain is an essential part of plant growth, there is such a thing as too much rain. Torrential downpours often cause the aeration channels in the topsoils to close, effectively suffocating the subsoils below.
In this sense, the soil is a bit like skin; it contains tiny pores located between the dirt particles. These pores are used for aeration and adequate drainage. When too much rain fills the pores, it suffocates the drainage systems, stopping essential nutrients from flowing between the particles.
This, in time, and without proper soil management, will lead the surface to become leached of nutrients and harden until it’s completely solid.
Too much rain can also lead to soil erosion. This washes away the topsoil (which contains most of the fresh, organic matter) and dries out the soil below.
Additionally, huge floods in the warmer seasons negatively affect the soil by washing away essential nitrogen stores in the ground. This makes it much more difficult for plants to grow in the soil, leaving the poor soil to harden over time.
When your garden soil is as hard as a rock, it’s usually down to neglect, torrential rains, heavy foot traffic, or even chemical exposure.
You can fix overly-compacted garden soils by watering them down and tilling each layer. Ensure you use organic materials to break up the ground over time.
Alternatively, if your soil is too difficult to work with, you can use raised beds to grow plants in your garden instead. Raised beds provide you with all-encompassing control over plant growth and can even make your garden look like a landscaping dream.